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Introduction to Linguistics

   THESE HANDOUTS MAY BE OUTDATED. PLEASE CONTACT THE COURSE INSTRUCTOR FOR THE LATEST VERSION OF THE HANDOUTS. 

 

 Course No.                 : HSS F222

Course Title               : Linguistics

Instructor-in-charge : Pranesh Bhargava

 

Scope and Objective of the course:

This course aims to introduce students to the field of Linguistics. The projected outcome of the course is for the learner to have a better understanding of the nature of Language, its various technical aspects and the role it plays in the society. The fundamental linguistic concepts will be exemplified primarily through English but also other Indian languages whenever possible.

Text Book:

Yule, G. The Study of Language. Cambridge: CUP. 2010 (4nd Edn.).

Reference Books:

(i) Hall, Christopher J. An Introduction to Language and Linguistics: Breaking the Language Spell. London: Viva-Continuum. 2008 (1st South Asian Edition). 

(ii) Pinker, S. The Stuff of Thought: Language as a Window into Human Nature. UK: Penguin. 1995.

 

4. Course Plan:

Lecture. No.

Learning Outcomes

Topics to be covered

Chapter in the Text Book

 1-2

Develop an overview of linguistics

Introduction to Linguistics; Linguistics as a field of study and its relationship with other disciplines; Nature and Origin of Language; Introduction to the concepts of structure, system, unit and class; theories of linguistic analysis

Ch. 1

 3-4

Familiarize themselves with the special features of language

Properties and Important Characteristics of Language

Ch. 2

 5-8

Examine the technical aspects of language

Segmental and Supra-segmental Features

Ch. 3-4

 9-14

Apply the rules of word-formation and morphology

Word-formation Process Morphology

Ch.5-6

 15-21

Analyse phrases and sentences with reference to Chomsky’s concept of Transformational Generative Grammar

Types of grammar, different approaches, constituent structure, IC Analysis, PS grammar; TG Grammar: Its development

Ch. 7-8

 22-23

Discuss the concept of meaning, theories and process of deriving meaning

Semantics

Ch. 9

 24-25

Elaborate on the use of context in  sentences

Pragmatics

Ch. 10

 26-28

Examine what cohesion, coherence and speech events are

Discourse Analysis

Ch. 11

 29-30

Discover the brain as the seat of language

Language and the brain: Neurolinguistics

Ch. 12

 31-35

Analyse how first and second languages are learnt

Language acquisition

Ch.-13-14

36-41

Evaluate change in languages from historical perspectives

Language change

Ch.17

38-39

Appreciating different varieties of languages

Language varieties

Ch. 18-19

40-41

Discuss language in relation to society and culture

Role of language in society; Sociolinguistics

Ch.20

 

Phonetics and Spoken English

In addition to part I (General Hand-out for all courses appended to the time table) this portion gives further specific details regarding the course.

Course No.                 : HSS F228

Course Title               : Phonetics and Spoken English

Instructor-in-charge : Pranesh Bhargava

 

1. Scope and Objective of the course:

In this course, the students will be introduced to the basic concepts of English phonetics. The projected outcomes of the course are better oral communication skills in the form of improved pronunciation of English and better listening skills in the form of enhanced comprehension of spoken English. Special focus shall be on the three important aspects of pronunciation: stress, rhythm, and intonation.

2. Text Book:

T1.       T. Balasubramanian. A Textbook of English Phonetics for Indian Students 2nd ed. Macmillan India Ltd., 2013

T2.       Peter Ladefoged and Keith Johnson. A Course in Phonetics 6th ed. Macmillan India Ltd., 2013. Wadsworth Cengage.

3. Reference Books:

(i)         Daniel Jones. Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary 17th edition. Ed. Peter Roach et al. Cambridge University Press, 2006

 

 

 

4. Course Structure:

Lect. No.

Learning Outcomes

Topics to be covered

Reference Unit T=Textbook, C=Chapter

1

Understand the importance of learning Phonetics for effective communication

Phonetics - an overview

T1. C2-3

2-5

Identify Air stream mechanisms and phonation types; Explain the mechanism of speech articulation

Speech mechanisms; body mechanisms for the articulation of speech

T1. C4

T2. C1, C6

6-10

Compare, classify and describe English consonants

English Phonemes: Articulation, description and phonetic symbols of consonants sounds in English

T2. C3

T1. C5-8

11-15

Compare, classify and describe English vowels

English Phonemes:

Articulation, description and phonetic symbols of vowel sounds in English

T1. C10-12

16-20

Familiarize with English transcription and apply it at the word level

Phonetic transcription of words using IPA symbols;

Practising transcription and oral reading

T2. C3

21-25

Recognize English syllables and stress patterns; Elaborate on how phonemes interact with each other

Stress, accent and intonation at word and sentence level; interaction of phonemes; Practising speaking

T1. C9, C14-C17

 

T2. C5 and C10

25-30

Apply transcription and pronunciation knowledge into practice

Phonetic transcription of sentences; transcription and conversation practice

T1. C1

T2. C2

31-35

Understand and apply the basic concepts of Acoustic Phonetics

Acoustic aspects of phonetics; analysis of vocal stimuli

T2. C8

36-42

Compare phonetics of different languages; Indian English and other languages

Varieties of spoken English; Indian English speakers

T1. C13

 

5.      Evaluation Scheme: Evaluation Scheme:

                             

EC.NO.

Evaluation Component

Weighting (in percentage)

Duration

Date, Time

(to be announced)

Remarks

1

Mid-sem

30

 

 

Closed Book

2

Assignment 1

10

 

 

Oral presentation and viva-voce

3

Assignment 2

10

 

 

Oral presentation and viva-voce

4

Assignment 3

10

 

 

Oral presentation and viva-voce

3

Compre. Exam

40

 

 

Closed Book

 

6. Chamber Consultation Hour: To be announced.

 

7. Notices: The notices concerning the course will be displayed on the CMS.

8. Make-up Policy:

The make-up for an evaluation component will be given only in genuine cases. However, the student has to contact his/her instructor for his/her approval. In these matters his/her decision shall be final.

 

9. Academic Honesty and Integrity Policy: Academic honesty and integrity are to be maintained by all the students throughout the semester and no type of academic dishonesty is acceptable.

 

            Pranesh Bhargava

                                                                                                            Instructor-in-charge

                                                                                                                  HSS F228

Introduction to Phonology

Course No.                             :  HSS F242

Course Title                            : Introduction to Phonology

Instructor-in-Charge             : Pranesh Bhargava

 

Scope and Objective of the Course: This course shall introduce the student to understand the fundamental notions in Phonology. The student would be able to to identify various theoretical perspectives and associated data analysis techniques, develop skills for applying systematic and theory-driven analysis of linguistic data. At the end of the course, the student shall be able to describe linguistic phenomena in a scientific and technical way.

 

Textbooks:

Hayes, Bruce. (2011). Introductory Phonology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.

 

 

Reference books

(i) Odden, D. A. (2005). Introducing phonology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

(ii) Various readings given at times.

 

Course Plan:

 

Lecture No.

Learning objectives

Topics to be covered

Chapter in the Text Book

1-4

Understand the concept of phonemes

Phonemes

1-3

5-8

Understand the concept of features and identify features in data

Features

4

6-10

Familiarize with the field of morphology

Morphology

5

10-13

Recognize phonological alterations through the application of rules

Phonological Alterations

6-7

14-16

Apply morphological and phonological rules to the data

Morphophonemic analysis

8

17-20

Understand the concept of productivity

Productivity

9

20-25

Describe the role morphology

The role of morphology and syntax

10

26-27

Understand the concept of diachrony and synchrony

Diachrony and Synchrony

11

28-30

Understand ‘abstractness’ with respect to phonological rules and apply it to data

Abstractness

12

30-33

Recognize the concept of syllable

Syllables

13

34-37

Understand the phenomenon of stress in languages, and its application in phonological representations on suprasegmental level

Stress, stress rules, and syllable weight

14

38-40

Understand the concept of tone in spoken communication, and its lexical and non-lexical uses

Tone and intonation

15

40-41

Explore the recent issues in the fields

Readings

Various

  

Symbolic Logic

Course No.                 :  PHIL C221 / HSS F236

Course title                  :  Symbolic Logic

Instructor‑in‑charge  Pranesh Bhargava

 

1. Scope and Objective of the course:

This course aims to introduce students to the field of Symbolic Logic. The projected outcome of the course is for the learner to have a better understanding of the nature of symbolic logic, its various technical aspects and its application in language.

 

2. Text Book:  Copi, Irving M., Symbolic Logic, 5th Edition, Pearson Education, 1979 (Indian Reprint, 2006)

 

3. Reference Books:

R1.     Carney, J.D, Introduction to Symbolic Logic, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1970

R2.     Copi, Irving M, Introduction to Logic, Prentice Hall of India, N.D., 11th Edition, 2002

 

4. Course Plan:

Lecture

No.

Learning Objectives

Topics to be covered

Reference

Chap/Sec. (Book)

1

Develop an overview the nature of logical reasoning

Introduction to Logic

R2, Ch. 1

2

Familiarize the major vocabulary of the subject

Key Concepts

R2, Ch. 1

3

Determine how the premises support the conclusion.

Representing the Structure of Arguments

R2, Ch.1

4

Analyze the relation between truth, validity and soundness to understand the nature of arguments clearly.

Truth, Validity and Soundness

Text Book, Ch. 1

 

 

5

Understand the basis of division between categorical propositions in traditional logic.

Categorical Propositions:

Quantity, Quality and Distribution

R2, Ch.5 

 

6

Recognize the different ways in which the propositions are related to each other and the different opposition relations

Traditional Square of Opposition:  Relations of Opposition

R2, Ch.5

 

7-8

Identify the nature of categorical syllogism and the relevance of major, minor and middle terms in determining validity and to see the possible fallacies.

Categorical Syllogisms:

Major, Minor and Middle terms and Validity of Syllogisms, Rules and Fallacies.

R2, Ch.6   

 

9-10

Understand how to represent and check the validity of arguments by means of Venn diagrams

Venn Diagrams

R2, Ch.  6   

 

11

Analyze the value of symbolic logic and understand its different concerns.

Symbolic Logic: Introduction

Text Book, Ch. 1

12

Recognize the value of sentential connectives in forming compound statements out of simple statements.

Sentential Connectives

 

Text Book, Ch.2

 

13

Identify how to symbolically represent natural language so that the logical features could be easily located.

Symbolizing Natural

Language

Text Book, Ch.2

 

14

Examine the nature of the arguments, which are composed of compound statements, as their validity depends heavily on the different ways the compound statements are related to each other.

Arguments Containing Compound Statements                        

Text Book, Ch.2

 

15

Identify the important role of truth functional connectives like conjunction, disjunction, implication etc. in determining the truth-value of propositions.

Propositional Calculus: Role of truth‑functional connectives

Text Book, Ch.2

 

16

Construct truth tables of different truth functional connectives.

Truth-tables

 

Text Book, Ch.2

 

17-18

Examine the validity of arguments mechanically using truth tables.

Testing Validity and Invalidity by Truth tables

Text Book, Ch.2

 

19

Identify the formal features of arguments so that checking validity will be easier.

Argument Forms

Text Book, Ch.2

20

Appraise the formal nature of different type of statement and to classify them into three groups: tautologies, contradictories and contingent.

Statement Forms

Text Book, Ch.2

21

Assess whether a statement is a tautology or contradictory or contingent by means of truth tables.

Testing the Status of Statement Forms by Truth-tables

Text Book, Ch.2

22-23

Review validity of arguments with the help of a set of elementary argument forms that can be applied to check validity mechanically.

Formal Proof of Validity: Rules of Inference

Text Book, Ch. 3

24-26

Apply a set of logical equivalences in the process of arriving at the validity of arguments.

Rules of Replacement             

Text Book, Ch. 3

27

Prove certain arguments invalid without using truth tables and not employing the formal proof.

Proving Invalidity

Text Book, Ch. 3

28

Understand the use of conditional proof to prove validity of arguments

Conditional Proof

Text Book, Ch. 3

29

Employ the reductio ad absurdum method to assess validity of arguments

Indirect Proof

Text Book, Ch. 3

30-31

Learn a method, which employs insights from truth table technique and reductio ad absurdum to check validity and the status of statements.

Shorter Truth table Technique

Text Book, Ch. 3

32-33

Demonstrate how to symbolize statements that involve existential or universal quantifiers.

Quantification theory

Translation with Quantifiers

Text Book, Ch. 4

34

Recognize the nature and function of the quantifiers

Universal Quantifier and Existential Quantifier

Text Book, Ch. 4

35

Construct a modern square of opposition using quantifiers

Modern Square of Opposition

Text Book, Ch. 4

36

Assess the validity of arguments that involves propositions with quantifiers.

Quantification Rules

Text Book, Ch. 4

37

Examine the validity of arguments by using the quantification rules.

Proving Validity

Text Book, Ch. 4

38

 Demonstrate the invalidity of certain arguments by assigning truth-values.

Proving Invalidity

Text Book, Ch. 4

39

Understand how to symbolize the statements which involve relations.

Symbolizing Relations

Text Book, Ch.5

40-42

Inspect the attributes of relational statements.

Attributes of Binary Relations

Text Book, Ch.5


  

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