BITS Pilani

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Research Focus

 
Combustion Analysis of PG Fueled IC Engine
 
To combat issues like energy crisis and climate change, alternative fuels are graining importance. Producer gas fuel is one such alternative green fuel which meets the twin requirement of above growing concern. In view of this, a research on development of producer gas engine was taken-up. Due to variation in thermos-physical properties of PG against conventional fuels. A tailor made induction system was designed and developed successfully at BITS Pilani – K K Birla Goa campus. This facility was developed under the DST-FIST scheme. The test rig is also equipped with advanced instrumentation for acquiring engine data for combustion analysis.
   
 Faculty : M. Sreedhar Babu, Shibu Clement
 
High-Lift Low Reynolds Number Airfoil
 
Increased payloads, shortened take-off and landing distances, reduced aircraft noise and lowered stall speeds can
all be derived from the beneficial effects of improved high-lift airfoil aerodynamics. It is, therefore, not surprising that the classic problem of high-lift airfoil design has been and remains a topic of considerable interest. The purpose of this work is to present a high-lift airfoil testing philosophy for the increasingly important low Reynolds number regime in which small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) operate.
 
Facilities: Low Speed Wind Tunnel - Test Section: 0.6m x 0.6m square, 2.0m long with maximum speed of 50 m/s, Entry: Square honey comb entry followed by three wire-mesh screens and a 12:1 contraction, Operation: Open circuit, continuous low speed suction tunnel, Power: 22 KW / 30HP AC motor, with speed control drive, Fan:12 blade low noise composite fan and Flow Diagnostics: TSI Two-component LDV and Scanning Valve 10" H2O 16-channel Pressure module.  
 
 
Faculty: Shibu Clement
 
Timescaling Hydrogen Assisted Cracking (HAC) in Metals
 
Some metal alloys are observed to fracture easily in the presence of hydrogen. Many diffusion-based models have helped describe this phenomena based on a critical situation reaching ahead of the crack tip, thus facilitating crack growth. However, it has been experimentally observed that diffusion and crack growth usually occur at distinct timescales - diffusion being a much slower process.
 
In this fundamental work, I am trying to analytically solve the diffusion based partial differential hydrogen cracking using two distinct timescales for diffusion and crack growth (moving frame problem). I have shown that the error in crack growth rate due to ignorance of timescaling is most fatal during early times of exposure, expressed in the figure.
Faculty: Gaurav Singh

Simultaneous Crack Growth in Brittle Solids: Controlling Fragment Size

During some applications like rock blasting in mining or tunnel boring, a suitable fragment size distribution is desirous for efficient removal as maybe seen in the draw point example in the attached figure. If one or two fragments are larger, then they would block the flow of fragments for the smaller ones too.

In this applied problem, we use higher order continuum based methods (GFEM) to simulate the growth and interaction of simultaneous cracks in a three-dimensional solid. An accurate description of this will result in an accurate prediction of fragment size distribution. Perhaps, by controlling the remote loading – we maybe able to control the fragment size distribution.

 

 



 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(Castro et al. 2007)
 
Funding Agency: Ministry of Mines, Government of India
        
Faculty:XuHai Tang (Wuhan University, China) , Gaurav Singh
 
 Machine Dynamics, Vibration and Acoustics
 
This laboratory is equipped with data acquisition systems (two channel, eight channel, eight channel portable), signal conditioner, electrodynamic shaker, accelerometers, impact hammer, microphones, sound power measurement system (Soundbook), impedance head, Human Vibration Measurement System, Sound Level Meters, MATLAB, ANSYS, COMSOL. In the following areas research being focused :
 
A.    Vibration Analysis of Perforated Plates
 
Plates are used as structural elements in major engineering applications. It is common to see openings in these plated structures for various reasons. For example, openings are needed for electric wiring, water pipes, plumbing etc. In case of the perforated plates, openings are often introduced in the regular array. Industrial applications use both the rectangular and triangular array of the perforations. The existence of large open area can change the mass distribution and stiffness around the opening regions, thus changing the vibration characteristics of the plates. The extent to which the perforations can change the vibration behavior of the plated structures depends on the size, shape, locations, numbers and type of the perforation pattern. Existing literature on free vibration of the perforated plate lacks formulation of the analytical models. Existing studies are more related to the determination of the equivalent material properties and their use in calculation of the fundamental frequency. In this research, analytical models are formulated to determine the fundamental frequency of the thin perforated plates. Approximate analytical methods such as the Rayleigh’s method, Rayleigh’s–Ritz method and the Galerkin method are used to formulate the analytical models.
 
 
 
 
B.    Acoustic Analysis of Indian Classical Musical Instruments
 
We have been studying Indian classical instruments for their scientific characterization and acoustic analysis. We have studied Sarasvati Veena (South Indian ancient classical instrument) and Ghumot (Goan Traditional musical instrument). This is first scientific study towards understanding the timbre of Sarasvati Veena through FFT. We have found three different “taals” in Ghumot during the study and correlated it with Tabla, another traditional instrument used in Hindustani music.



 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Faculty:
 
C.    Design and Development of Controller for MR Damper
 
The magnetorheological damper is used in semi-active suspension systems. We have developed an experimental setup mimicking quarter car model, identified the system parameters using experiments. We are designing the controllers based on the identified parameters.

 
 


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
D.    Condition monitoring to predict bearing failures
 
This study outlines the experimental investigation methods of condition monitoring to predict bearing failures using the experimental vibration signatures. The purpose of condition monitoring is to maximize the machine availability and utility of the machine components. Bearings being one of the most common component in any rotating machinery, it is vital to study the health of the bearing and be able to predict bearing failure, its location and severity. This prevents machine down-time, monetary loss and unfortunate accidents. A test rig was fabricated to get the vibration signatures of bearings. Prediction of bearing failure relies on the presence of the bearing characteristic frequencies - inner race frequency, outer race frequency, ball pass frequency and fundamental train frequency - and its harmonics in the vibration signal acquired. These frequencies are present in the vibration signature due to the interaction of surfaces of different bearing components that have defects in them. Both time and frequency domain numerical signature analysis were performed on the vibration signatures acquired. Simple frequency domain method like Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), chaotic vibration method like modified Poincare mapping and time-frequency domain Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) were used in detecting bearing failure. Using the FFT analysis method, it is hard to predict the failures, hence better signal processing methods like modified Poincare mapping and WVD are used. Chaotic phenomena have been observed in fluid flow, but only now the chaotic vibration signatures has been observed in the lower-order mechanical systems. With the chaotic analysis method, Poincare Mapping and studying the trends in the Wigner-Ville Distribution contour plot, the location and the severity of the failure can be predicted.



 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Faculty: Pravin Singru
 
 

 
 
Rotational Moulding of Plastics

Due to growth in the infrastructural requirements over the last decade, Rotational Moulding in India is growing at a faster rate. BITS Pilani K K Birla Goa Campus contributes to the knowledge in this field. The research studies that are conducted  at BITS include study of resins for their suitability to Rotomoulding, variations in the material properties with incorporation of process additives and enhancers, performance of rotationally moulded product in terms of  physical and mechanical properties, prediction of performance of the process as well as products using simulation studies, product development for rotational moulding, etc. 
 
With a customized lab scale rotational moulding machine, several other facilities have been developed for the research studies in Rotational Moulding. These include MFI testing, Single Screw Extruder with Torque Rheometer, Dynamic Mechanical Analyser (DMA), Universal Testing Machine, HDT-VSP apparatus, Templogger for internal air temperature of mould, Compression Moulding Press, etc. 
 
BITS can also offer the services to industry in terms of testing of physical and mechanical properties of the rotationally moulded products and aims to become a Center of Excellence in Rotational Moulding in coming few years.
 








 
 
   

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
Material Testing
 
 
Sheet metals are extensively used in forming operations. The fracture limits during forming operations are estimated by using formability approach (simulative and intrinsic tests). Present study aims to predict most accurate fracture load and critical strain rate using proposed fracture mechanics approach along with formability approach. As a part of the case study, extra deep drawn (EDD) steel sheets are chosen. EDD steel sheets are extensively used in automotive industries. Because of the size and properties, EDD steel falls in the regime of general yield.
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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 CFB Boiler 
 
 A Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) is a relatively new and alternate technology gaining popularity in power generation because of its capability of burning wide range of fuels including coal, wood wastes, agricultural wastes, kerosene etc., and its environmental compatibility i.e. efficient sulphur removal, low NOx emission, and high combustion efficiency. These factors led to the development of CFB steam generators. Research then began on the various aspects related with CFB. CFB setup has been fabricated in BITS Pilani – K K Birla Goa Campus. CFD simulations of CFB heat exchanger is also in progress.

 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Funding Agency: DST-SERB, Govt. of India
 
 
 
 
 
Investigations on Performance of Biodiesel Powered Diesel Engine
 
Biodiesel is one of alternate renewable energy sources, which can be easily produced with abundantly available natural resources like neem trees in country like India. Biodiesel will also provide alternate source of income to farmers.  However it is essential to focus on research on use of biodiesel in order to understand how efficiently these fuels will work in current scenario of VCR diesel engines and how much environmental friendly they will be in terms of engines emissions like NOx, SOx, CO etc.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Consultancy Capacity

  • Composite Materials and Processing
  • Mechanical Material Testing 
  • FEM Analysis of Machine Components
  • Biomechanical Implants using Commercial Software
  • Estimation of Friction and Wear Performance
  • Feasibility Studies on Application of Cellular Manufacturing
  • Layout Design of New Factory Set-ups.
  • Modal Analysis of Plates, Shells
  • Vibration Based Condition Monitoring of Machines

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